Quran Read-A-Long: The Cow 211-216 Speaks of Familiar Things and a Single Community

When verse 213 says that “men belonged to a single community,” is it saying that at one point we were all the same and only later separated or is it just referring to a single community? I’m not clear because of what follows it: God sent them messengers and the Book. If Book is a reference to originally sending the Bible, then it wasn’t to everyone, it was to the Israelites. Similarly, if Book refers to the Quran then there wasn’t one community at the time. So what is this reference to a single community? Is it a state of nature kind of thing?

I also find verse 216 particularly interesting. Bad things (e.g. fighting) is good for us and things that please us aren’t good for us. Only God knows. I find this particularly interesting because people often insist that certain things are or aren’t good for us – marijuana, sex, skiing, television, fat, etc. – and though we seek to find out and solve these riddles, many of our actual conclusions come down to moral or cultural judgments. E.g. Fat is ugly and bad (it’s not); marijuana is bad for you and should be illegal (worse things are legal); sex is wrong before marriage (for much of human history the convention didn’t exist – was the procreation wrong?), etc. Only God knows what’s really good and bad for us, so why do we keep trying to push our views on others?

Thanks for being a part of Quran Read-A-Long and leaving your thoughts with us, answering some of my questions and elaborating on other parts of these verses that I missed.

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The Cow 211-216

211. Ask the children of Israel how many a clear sign We had given them. But if one changes the favor of God after having received it, then remember, God is severe in revenge. 212. Enamored are the unbelievers in the life of this world, and scoff at the faithful. But those who keep from evil and follow the straight path will have a higher place than they on the Day of Reckoning; for God gives in measure without number whomsoever He will. 213. Men belonged to a single community, and God sent them messengers to give them happy tidings and warnings, and sent the Book with them containing the truth to judge between them in matters of dispute; but only those who received it differed after receiving clear proofs, on account of waywardness (and jealousies) among them. Then God by His dispensation showed those who believed the way to the truth about which they were differing; for God shows whom He please the path that is straight. 214. Do you think you will find your way to Paradise even though you have not known what the others before you have gone through? They had suffered affliction and loss, and were shaken and tossed about so that even the Apostle had to cry out with his followers: “When will the help of God arrive?” Remember, the help of God is ever at hand. 215. They ask you of what they should give in charity. Tell them: “What you can spare of your wealth as should benefit the parents, the relatives, the orphans, the needy, the wayfarers, for God is not unaware of the good deeds that you do.” 216. Enjoined on you is fighting, and this you abhor. You may dislike a thing yet it may be good for you; or a thing may haply please you but may be bad for you. Only God has knowledge, and you do not know.

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15 Responses

  1. single community—Yes, the idea is of unity within diversity. Surah 40, v 78, speaks of messengers who are mentioned and those that are not (non-biblical)–surah 16 v 36 also speaks of messengers sent to all people —“for we certainly sent amongst every people a messenger, (with the command) serve God and eschew evil. Of the people, were some whom God guided and some on whom error became inevitably (established) so travel through the earth, and see what was the end of those who denied (truth).
    Surah 49 v13-O mankind, we created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know each other (not that you despise each other). Surely the most honored of you in the sight of God is the most righteous of you. And God has full knowledge and is well aquainted (with all things)

    This idea of connectedness spurred the pursuit of knowledge and the scholars of the 8th-12th centuries were not shy of looking into the theologies/philosophies of the east and also the ancients in order to discover ‘truths”. The idea of guidance sent to all mankind —throughout the ages –is an important aspect of Judgement. Because guidance has been offerred (to everyone), mankind cannot use the excuse “I did not know”.

    Book-The vedas (Indian religious book) says “truth is one, the wise call it by many names. ” Muslims call it Tawheed, Jews call it Shema, Christians might call it “word” or Jesus Christ—the Chineese might call it Tao.—There is only one God and his message in its essence, is the same. But people like to make divisions (for example–Sunni and Shia—such a division did not exists before the Quran/Islam–but after.)
    —also, There is an idea in the Torah and maybe also in the New Testament that “truth”/revelation/”book” is with God—The Quran also mentions “a tablet preserved”—-…….I don’t know if it is relevant to this verse or not….

    Verse 216—Fighting is good—This verse should be read together with verse 217—They ask you concerning the fighting in the prohibited month. Say: fighting therein is a grave (offense); but graver still, in the sight of God, is to prevent access to the path of God, to deny him, to prevent access to the sacred mosque, and drive out its members (residents). Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back on your faith if they can…..”

    Background—The Meccan muslims fleeing persecution, came to Medina. Where the community grew because many residents of Medina converted to islam. For the Meccans –this new community was a threat to their “way of life” and economy and a confrontation was inevitable. But this was not something the Meccan muslims were eager for–they were well aware they would be battling against their fathers or brothers or relatives. The thought would have crossed their minds—Can a merciful, compassionate (and omnipotent) God–simply make their troubles go away so they did not have to undertake such a painful excersise?
    The answer is in verse 214. —Even good people (and prophets) must go through trails. This allows for spiritual progress and helps strengthen our faith. It is our responsibilty to actively engage with life and stand firm for justice and morality. We have been given free-will for a purpose—and it is upto us to make use of it for good. However, this does not mean God abandons us, as verse 214 points out–God helps those who help themselves.

  2. So then the verse about community is saying that we are all of one tribe, despite the divisions that we create? And amongst every tribe that is (even though we’re all one, human, tribe) there has been a messenger of some kind sent from God? Is that the messenger to whom the verse refers or is it to Mohammed, the messenger that would eventually bring revelation for all mankind (ideally)?

  3. In the Quran, Heaven/paradise is open to all “believers”.–the concept (“believer”) is defined in S.2 v3-5 (as well as eslewhere)
    3. who believe in the unseen, are steadfast in prayer,and spend out of what we have provided for them
    4. And who believe in the revelation sent to you and sent before your time, and (in their hearts) have the assurance of the hereafter.

    Guidance has been sent to all of mankind since Prophet Adam(pbuh). He was the first Prophet /messenger, Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) is believed to be the last. The Quran is the most recent guidance from among all the guidance sent to all people.

    My translation of v213 —partial
    “Mankind was one single nation. And God sent messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them he sent the book in truth, to judge between people in matters wherein they differed;…..”

    Not sure if I answered your question…….?

  4. Sort of, yes – thank you 🙂

    What I understand, I think, is that this is not some state of nature reference; it is, instead, intended to be a reference to things that happened.

    Is the Book in 213 the Quran? If so, is the Book always a reference to the Quran? I ask because I always wonder if it could be a reference to the Bible. Is their a particular (alternative) word that is used (in English translations) to refer to the Bible so that I stop wondering?

    I have another question on a somewhat different topic. We discussed how messengers of all kinds, mentioned in the Bible and not, were sent to every different people so that no one could claim that they didn’t know what the deal was on Judgment Day. Then you mentioned here something well understood in Islam: that Mohammed was the final prophet. How do you feel about religions like the Bahai Faith or the Druze or even the Mormons, who to a greater or lesser extent, claim that their founders/leaders were prophets in their own right?

    I guess what I want to understand is where such religious traditions fall into the fray or on the “inspired” or “acceptability” line for either Islam or you personally – if you care to share (I understand that it may be a bit of a personal or controversial question).

  5. Sorry for the late reply; I’ve been working on applications for PhD programs this past week.

    Mankind was one single nation…

    Once again, I like to visit the different tafsir to see what others thought. Ibn Kathir’s exegesis is quite thin and rather weak, IMO. He wrote:

    `Abdur-Razzaq said that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that Allah’s statement: (Mankind was one community) means; “They all had the guidance.”

    However, he also writes with regard to 10:19 (a similar verse):

    Allah then tells us that Shirk was new among mankind. It was not in existence in the beginning. He tells us that people were believers in one religion and that religion was Islam. Ibn `Abbas said: “There were ten centuries between Adam and Nuh [Noah]. They were all on Islam. Then differences among people took place. They worshipped idols and rivals. So Allah sent extensive evidence and irrefutable proof with His Messengers.”

    Yusuf Ali is strangely silent on 2:213; however, for 10:19 he wrote:

    Cf. 2:213. All mankind was created one, and Allah’s Message to mankind is in essence one, the Message of Unity and Truth. But as selfishness and egotism got hold of man, certain differences sprang up between individuals, races, and nations, and in His infinite Mercy He sent them messengers and messages to suit their varying mentality, to test them by His gifts, and stir them up to emulation in virtue and piety (5:51).

    Muhammad Asad wrote:

    By using the expression ummah wahidah (“one single community”) to describe the original state of mankind, the Qur’an does not propound, as might appear at first glance, the idea of a mythical “golden age” obtaining at the dawn of man’s history. What is alluded to in this verse is no more than the relative homogeneity of instinctive perceptions and inclinations characteristic of man’s primitive mentality and the primitive social order in which he lived in those early days. Since that homogeneity was based on a lack of intellectual and emotional differentiation rather than on a conscious agreement among the members of human society, it was bound to disintegrate in the measure of man’s subsequent development. As his thought-life became more and more complex, his emotional capacity and his individual needs, too, became more differentiated, conflicts of views and interests came to the fore, and mankind ceased to be “one single community” as regards their outlook on life and their moral valuations: and it was at this stage that divine guidance became necessary. (It is to be borne in mind that the term al-kitab refers here – as in many other places in the Qur’an – not to any particular scripture but to divine revelation as such.) This interpretation of the above Qur’anic passage is supported by the fact that the famous Companion `Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud used to read it thus: “All mankind were once one single community, and then they began to differ (fakhtalafu)-whereupon God raised up …… etc. Although the word fakhtalafu interpolated here by Ibn Mas’ud does not appear in the generally-accepted text of the Qur’an, almost all of the authorities are of the opinion that it is implied in the context. (Quran Ref: 2:213)

    and with them He sent the Book in truth…

    Asad is correct in that “the Book” referred to in this verse is not specifying one particular “book” (the Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham), the Tawrat (Torah), the Zabur (Psalms), the Injeel (Gospel), or the Qur’an). In Islam, all of these are considered to be part of “the Book.” The basic message in all of these was the same, even though they have been lost or changed in various ways over time.

    But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But God knoweth, and ye know not.

    Kay suggested that verse 2:216 be read in conjunction with 2:217, which would be correct to do; however, I also agree with Yusuf Ali in that it should also be read in conjunction with 2:215:

    To fight in the cause of Truth is one of the highest forms of charity. What can you offer that is more precious than your own life? But here again the limitations come in. If you are a mere brawler, or a selfish aggressive person, or a vainglorious bully, you deserve the highest censure. Allah knows the value of things better than you do.

    BTW, I consider 2:216 to be a “VIV” (very important verse).

    How do you feel about religions like the Bahai Faith or the Druze or even the Mormons…

    I should really pass on this question as all my sisters and their in-laws are Mormon (and who knows if they’ll ever stumble upon this comment 😉 ). Let’s just say that I disagree theologically with their religion.

  6. These are interesting questions you are asking.

    I want to mention that we are reading translations—and some of the “nuance” of the arabic gets lost. There are 3 (or 2) catagories of “Prophet” as the word is translated in English. In arabic—which is the language the Quran uses–There is “Rasul” who is a messenger of God but brings with him a “Law”. There is “Nabi” or Prophet/Messenger of God who do not come with any new “Law” and there are the Imam–or wisdom teachers who carry on the message of the Prophets(Rasul/Nabi). Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) is a “Rasul” or Prophet who brings a “Law”. (Some refer to the Quran as the last testament). Thus technically -someone could accept that Prophet Muhammed(pbuh) is the last prophet and yet claim they have their own wisdom teachers who are carrying on his message. Perhaps the easiest way to “label” those religions that have been influenced by the Quran and Prophet Muhammed(pbuh) such as the Bahai, Ahmadia, Druze, and Sikh …etc might be to refer to them as offshoots of Islam?—It would depend on how one defines “Islam”?(Mormon–that would be a matter for Christianity to decide) As far as the Quran is concerned–it says that who is “wrong” is not for humans to judge—this judgement (and responsibilty)is reserved for God. We are simply to follow the guidance given to us to the best of our abilities–that is our resonsibility. (This does not mean blindly following something–but to use our intelligence to figure out the “truth'”for ourselves) The one thing that the Quran asks us to do–is to have a direct and personal relationship with God–that is–no human, non-human, divine or semi-divine entity should come between God and the believer.–Personally–I think if this rule is followed—the “title” of the religious leader does not matter. (I am not implying that Prophets should be disregarded or disrespected)

    When the Quran wants to refer to a specific revelation, it uses a name such as Taurat=Torah, Zabur=Pslams, Injil =(Evange/Gospel) and Quran=Quran. (see Suran 36, v2 as an example of Quran, Surah 3, v48 for Torah, Gospel), The scrolls/books of Prophet Abraham(pbuh)(S87, v19)
    In 213, ‘the book” could refer to the Quran–but need not be limited to it.

    The Quran tells us to examine the books of wisdom and to discover the “truth” within (for ourselves)—Surah 5, verse 48.

    To you have we sent the scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and gaurding it in safety: so judge between them by what god has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the truth that has come. To each among you have we prescribed a Law and an open way-*If God had so willed, he would have made you a single people, but (his plan is) to test you in what he has given you: so strive as in a race (competition) in all virtues. The goal of you all is to God; it is he that will show you the truth of the matters in which you dispute.

    *This means that God could have taken away our free-will and we would not have had any differences.—We should have used our free-will to unite–but we did not–nevertheless—we should still strive to be the best/good that we are cabable of.

  7. @ Kay: Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) is a “Rasul” or Prophet who brings a “Law”.

    Very minor quibble: Muhammad (pbuh) was both a rasul and a nabi, as were the prophets Nuh, Ibrahim, Lut, Isma’il, Musa, Ilyas, Yunus, and Isa (pbut).

  8. All Rasul are also Nabi but not all Nabi are Rasul–is the general understanding–I think. But it may not be the only one—(?).

    I feel that “terrrorists” are not “muslim” because they are using religion to cause harm to others. Like wise, as recent events have shown, Judaism may also have been hijacked by extremists who are intent on causing harm. Under such circumstances–it is important to clarify and define a religion because to not do so will potentially cause harm/damage to the youngsters of a society/religion. On the other hand –believers such as the Druze and others who are sincerely trying to follow their spiritual path without causing any harm to others should not be excluded as believers. That way, the two concepts “Unity within diversity” and “Justice” can be balanced.

    It is important to remember God is compassionate and merciful. —Qualities that the Quran repeats over and over but which can be easily overlooked among all the rules and regulations of the Medina Surahs.

    Surah 109 basically says–“to you is your way, to me is mine” —Mutual respect and tolerance.

  9. My apologies for the late reply to this post and the subsequent comments – I’ve been trying to get to it but keeping up with what’s current becomes the priority. First, JDsg – PhD applications? What subject matter and what schools? Do you plan on staying in Singapore or would you come to the U.S. to do a PhD?

    I particularly like Asad’s understanding of 2:213. I think it is the most complete and makes the most sense in understanding the situation of the community and the book.

    That actually all makes a lot more sense now, and I’m glad you both helped me flesh it out. I think there are a number of important ideas that are packed into these verses and I couldn’t mine them successfully on my own. With every reading I feel my own understanding of the Quran being drastically minimized by not being able to read it in Arabic.

    Onto another issue, the ‘political’ one, that I usually try to avoid because I find it more divisive than the talk is worth, but I feel the need to mention in this case.

    Just as one could hardly say that Islam has been hijacked by extremists so too do I think that one cannot say that Judaism may also have been hijacked by extremists who are intent on causing harm.

    These are both religions with wonderful traditions, beautiful texts and important histories. As in every religion under the sun, there are those people who take it to an extreme, interpret its scriptures as they see fit, and then end up getting most of the media attention for the things that they are doing. Much more goes on in Judaism, which should be differentiated from Israeli but that is a point I think is commonly overlooked, than ultra-orthodox settlers and supporters of war in Gaza just as much more goes on in Islam than Hamas militants firing rockets.

    I hardly think that either religion has been hijacked by extremists. Rather, I think that our awareness of these issues makes it appear so because it’s so much easier to ignore everything else that goes on in these religions that does not involve violence and inequity. There are numerous Jewish groups that oppose Israeli actions, both inside and outside of Israel, just as there are numerous Muslims who oppose the use of violence, as the emblems on JDsg’s blog would indicate. Unfortunately for an equitable understanding of the global, as opposed to the incredibly localized, understanding of the situation and its reflection on the religions these actions are purportedly supposed to represent, people like Jewish groups that oppose Israeli military action and JDsg don’t make the news (at least not often enough or on a large enough scale).

    Because this is a potentially endless conversation, I will stop going on about it now, but I do think that as a multi-religious group reading the Quran together and all hoping for peace and acceptance, we should consider the global picture as well and the differences between a religion and a country.

  10. Heh. Subjects applied for are economics and management (one or the other, of course, not both). To be honest, I’d probably do much better in management; economics I suspect would be immensely difficult. Still, it’s a subject I love. Schools are National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, and Singapore Management University. I don’t have any plans to go back to the US anytime soon.

    I rarely comment on the situation in I/P. Not that I don’t have definite opinions, but most other Muslim writers voice my sentiments to the point where I don’t feel compelled to say “me too.” I do believe that the conflict is largely political, as opposed to religious, and I also agree that neither religion is “hijacked.” I think the “hijacked” meme is spread today mainly by people who are trying to make mountains out of molehills.

    (Sorry for the short reply; I’ve been up all night with a sick baby.)

  11. Good luck with your applications – they’re both certainly fascinating but challenging fields.

    I agree that the issue is a largely political and one for which the arguments and opinions are all out there. I think the only thing not getting done often enough is prayer for the safety, security and better futures of everyone involved.

    I also don’t think an apology is ever necessary for a short blog comment when you have a sick baby at home. I hope that the illness passes quickly and that you are only kept up at night by giggles.

  12. Hi Jay,

    I’m a little bit late here. You said:
    “How do you feel about religions like the Bahai Faith or the Druze or even the Mormons, who to a greater or lesser extent, claim that their founders/leaders were prophets in their own right?”

    I’m not a muslim yet. I’ve found Islam a little while ago.

    I think my opnion may be interesting here in your question.
    What Islam has that others religions doesn’t?

    I think Islam fills the gaps of the others religions. When I studied Judaism, it really didn’t make sense to me the ideia that God chose a nation and only that nation could receive prophets. What about the other nations? What did the jews have done to deserve such thing?

    When I studied Christianity, I was amazed by the things Jesus preached. But I was troubled with the worship of Jesus, Mary and the saints. I coudn’t believe neither that Jesus was God or his son. I felt that Christianity(Catholicism and Protestantism) had gone astray.

    So I thought, if God really exists and I believed in that, would He leave people without true guidance?

    Then I’ve found Islam. This religion fits so perfectly with the others. One thing that is amazing is that the Holy Quran is spoken by God Himself. There’s no other book on Earth that claim that. Other thing amazing is that there are a lot of prophecies in the bible that foretold Islam. The most incredible for me is the one about Ishmael. When in the Bible, God says that He will raise a great nation from Ishmael.

    So from a “muslim perspective”, the problem with this other religions is that there is no good evidence for them. The ones that came from inside of the muslim world, claim that Muhammad(pbuh) was not the last messanger and that the Quran is abrogated. And for the ones that came from Christianity, the concept of God differs from Islam, since it follows a little bit of the Christian theology.

    So the muslim opinion about these prophets is the same opinion that Judaism has about Jesus(pbuh) and Muhammad(pbuh) for example. The only diference is that, in my opinion, Islam has strong arguments against the arguments of Judaism, but these other religions don’t have arguments against Islam.

    It doesn’t mean we shouldn’t respect each others opinion and faith. On the contrary, we should dialogue in the best manner possible, showing what we believe and listening to what others believe. And then we can come to a better conclusion.

  13. Hi Marcelo – I’m glad that you have found a religion that makes sense to you. Islam does certainly make a lot of sense in the fashion that you have outlined (and in many others!). I would like to comment on a few things.

    When I studied Judaism, it really didn’t make sense to me the ideia that God chose a nation and only that nation could receive prophets. What about the other nations? What did the jews have done to deserve such thing?

    I agree that it doesn’t make sense that God should choose any one nation. In fact, the idea of chosenness really bothers me about Judaism. My sentiments, however, are quite modern in that sense because we live in a much smaller world now in which we need to love and appreciate each other more. When the idea of chosenness came into play, however, it was useful in a unifying and survivalistic sense.

    As for your final question, what did the Jews do to deserve this chosenness, the answer is, absolutely nothing. According to Genesis, Abraham did nothing to deserve being spoken to by God and having his progeny chosen. The point of much of the Torah is to demonstrate that the entire world belongs to God and that He can do what He pleases with it. At creation, God allotted land to the 70 different peoples, and gave nothing to the people that would become the Jews (the ancient Israelites, we’ll call them). The Torah is meant to demonstrate that the entire world is God’s and even though He gave some people some land He has the power to do what He wants with that land and give it to someone else. He chose the Jews – for no reason – and gave them that land. And He even said they’d lose the land if they didn’t behave themselves.

    Now, rabbinic Judaism, Christianity and Islam didn’t like the arbitrariness of this decision and so many stories have been created about Abraham and what kind of deserving person he was for a variety of reasons. Muslims believe that the Torah’s text is corrupted and that it doesn’t properly convey who Abraham was, but speaking historically and as a biblical scholar, much of the point of the way the larger story in the Torah is conveyed is to show that the decision is arbitrary, which all the more solidifies God’s choice of the Jewish people because it is not a logical (human understood) decision, but rather, a divine one.

    Concerning Christian worship of Jesus as God, you’re not the first to be bothered by it. Internal to Christianity this has been one of the longest standing issues in existence. Indeed, at the time “Jesus as God” was made doctrine, it was a vote amongst about 300 bishops that barely even passed. So don’t worry, you’re not alone in that difficulty.

    Also, not that I care to argue “for” or “against” any religion – like your conclusions here, I think we should just dialogue and try to understand each other – but it’s much easier to have arguments against something that you’re aware of (i.e. Islam being aware of Judaism and Christianity) than it is to have arguments against something you’re not aware of (i.e. Christianity and Islam at the time of Judaism’s inception). It’s not that I don’t appreciate these varying arguments, but, speaking logically and not theologically, it’s quite apparent how this is so.

    All in all, I like the conclusion you’ve come to here, like I said. We should try to understand each other.

  14. Hi Jay,

    I liked your reply. As I said, I was showing a “muslim perspective” about the prophets that came after Muhammad(pbuh).

    I agree with the fact that since Christianity and Islam came later, it’s easier for them to talk about previous religions.

    I agree with the fact that God gives to whomever He pleases and He doesn’t need a reason for doing so. In previous posts here there’s a verse of the Quran saying that. The problem for me was just why “only” to the jews.

    So, I was not with the intention of defending Islam and attacking the other religions. Rather, I was just mentioning the view of Islam about these religions that came after.

    I was wondering what is your religion. Are you a jew?

    thanks!

  15. Oh, I certainly didn’t think that you were attacking any religion – just trying to understand the Quran from the perspective of the Quran, which is a very valuable exercise (hence Quran Read-A-Long). I was merely qualifying my own statements because I like to keep as neutral a perspective as possible.

    I am Jewish, yes. For what it’s worth (or not) I don’t subscribe to it or the theology of any particular religion or follow any of them religiously (i.e. keep laws/holidays/etc.). I do my best to study and understand all religions so that I can find the common ground between them and communicate their collective values.

    Generally speaking, I find religion fascinating, both internally (i.e. from the religion’s perspective), historically and textually. I think my own interest in it intellectually stems from my lack of ability to identify theologically, or faithfully, if you will.

    I had always wanted to read the Quran all the way through and understand it from it’s own vantage point and the perspective of its adherents. This blog forum has offered me an unprecedented opportunity to do just that, and I’m incredibly grateful to you and the people who participate and make this a collaborative and possible learning experience. I value it greatly.

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