Quran Read-A-Long: Al’-Imran 156-180 is the Return of Our Exploration of the Quran Together

156.  People are told not to presume that bad things would not have happened had others believed as they did, because believing as, say, a Muslim would doesn’t preclude bad things from happening, this verse explains. God decides what bad things happen and we must rest assured that whatever is happening is by God’s will and therefore as it should be (in the case of death, at least, if not everything else . . . ).

157. This verse seems to condone martyrdom by saying that dying in God’s cause results in something better than all the good of this world. Verses 169-172 convey a similar message: death in the name of God when doing for God what is right is not death. It is everlasting life – a key theme.

159. This verse pertains to the disaster at Uhud when the prophet was forgiving rather than retributive and that resulted in the retention of his community rather than their abandonment of his cause.

161. It’s curious that the Quran says that a prophet can’t deceive because he’ll be faced with his deceptions come the Day of Resurrection only because there are false prophets. Now, presuming that a person is a real prophet, he’s not lying. And that’s that. However, if there’s a fake prophet and people believe him then he could be lying. Sure, he’ll face that on judgment day and be punished, but if he’s dissimulating and doesn’t care and people believe him then knowing that he’s going to pay for it later doesn’t help us avoid the problem now – it just let’s us know that if we walk around believing everybody who claims to be a prophet then we can be content in the knowledge that the liars will be sorted out when the time comes. Again, though, I don’t find that be particularly reassuring (nor do I mean to suggest that we should believe everyone in the hopes of being in good shape because we were only trying to follow God – my point is, this presents us with difficulties).

Verse 164 and those that precede it don’t seem to be referring to Muslims. Sure, God did raise up an apostle for the Muslims, but not in the midst of the believers because there were no believers (at least not in the right thing) in Mohammed’s day. That was part of the problem. Does this refer to Jesus as we are in the surah about the House of Imran? Does it refer to someone else (or multiple people) in the past?

You know what? On a second (or third/fourth) read it does seem as though verse 164 is referring to Mohammed as the prophet – an “apostle from among themselves” is part of the importance of Mohammed. An Arab prophet and an Arabic revelation. The believers could be those who would believe once given the truth, those who no longer wished to be lost in error.

As I hear verses 177-178 in English I can only imagine what they sound like in Arabic. That is not to say that they sound particularly good in English, but I can see through the translation (a bit) to the poetry of the words themselves. The rhythms of the repetitions of words and phrases and so much more must be beautiful when chanted properly in the original.

179. The idea of “that which is beyond the reach of human perception” is a fascinating one to me right now. I’ve been reading a book about the way people have understood God over the last 4000 years (Karen Armstrong’s A History of God: The 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam) and one of the primary motifs is the idea of God as unknowable. That may seem quite obvious but the different ways that the three monotheistic faiths have embraced that notion, and the overlap among them, is quite fascinating, especially as it comes to the essential lack of knowledge that some have come to in regards to God. That is, reason and logic only get us so far and there is only so much we can know about God, much of which must be expressed as what we do not know about God. Anyway, that these ideas are not merely arrived at by certain Muslims wrestling with how to understand God but that the Quran points them to the notion that there is that which that they cannot know (whether here about God specifically or not is unclear) is neat.

180. Is this verse a reference to the importance of zakkat? That is, is this about not clinging to the material things of this world and making sure that others get what they need when you have it to spare (and God knowing of those who cling to objects) or is this a reference to something else more specific? Or! as I’ve noticed the Quran is want to do, is it a reference to both, part of the constant reinforcement of central ideas amongst the specifics of the ongoing text? I love that!

Al’-Imran 156-180

156. O you who have attained to faith! Be not like those who are bent on denying the truth and say of their brethren [who die] after having set out on a journey to faraway places or gone forth to war, “Had they but remained with us, they would not have died,” or, “they would not have been slain” – for God will cause such thoughts to become a source of bitter regret in their hearts, since it is God who grants life and deals death. And God sees all that you do. 157. And if indeed you are slain or die in God’s cause, then surely forgiveness from God and His grace are better than all that one could amass [in this world]: 158. for, indeed, if you die or are slain, it will surely be unto God that you shall be gathered. 159. And it was by God’s grace that thou [O Prophet] didst deal gently with thy followers: for if thou hadst been harsh and hard of heart, they would indeed have broken away from thee. Pardon them, then, and pray that they be forgiven. And take counsel with them in all matters of public concern; then, when thou hast decided upon a course of action, place thy trust in God: for, verily, God loves those who place their trust in Him. 160. If God succours you, none can ever overcome you; but if He should forsake you, who could succour you thereafter? In God, then, let the believers place their trust! 161. AND IT IS not conceivable that a prophet should deceive – since he who deceives shall be faced with his deceit on the Day of Resurrection, when every human being shall be repaid in full for whatever he has done, and none shall be wronged. 162. Is then he who strives after God’s goodly acceptance like unto him who has earned the burden of God’s condemnation and whose goal is hell? – and how vile a journey’s end! 163. They are on [entirely] different levels in the sight of God; for God sees all that they do. 164 Indeed, God bestowed a favor upon the believers when he raised up in their midst an apostle from among themselves, to convey His messages unto them, and to cause them to grow in purity, and to impart unto them the divine writ as well as wisdom – whereas before that they were indeed, most obviously, lost in error. 165 AND DO YOU, now that a calamity has befallen you after you had inflicted twice as much [on your foes], ask yourselves, “How has this come about?” Say: “It has come from your own selves.” Verily, God has the power to will anything: 166 and all that befell you on the day when the two hosts met in battle happened by God’s leave, so that He might mark out the [true] believers, 167 and mark out those who were tainted with hypocrisy and, when they were told, “Come, fight in God’s cause” – or, “Defend yourselves” – answered, “If we but knew [that it would come to a] fight, we would indeed follow you.” Unto apostasy were they nearer on that day than unto faith, uttering with their mouths something which was not in their hearts, the while God knew fully well what they were trying to conceal: 168 they who, having themselves held back [from fighting, later] said of their [slain] brethren, “Had they but paid heed to us, they would not have been slain.” Say: “Avert, then, death from yourselves, if what you say is true!” 169 But do not think of those that have been slain in God’s cause as dead. Nay, they are alive! With their Sustainer have they their sustenance, 170 exulting in that [martyrdom] which God has bestowed upon them out of His bounty. And they rejoice in the glad tiding given to those [of their brethren] who have been left behind and have not yet joined them, that no fear need they have, and neither shall they grieve: 171 they rejoice in the glad tiding of God’s blessings and bounty, and [in the promise] that God will not fail to requite the believers 172 who responded to the call of God and the Apostle after misfortune had befallen them. A magnificent requital awaits those of them who have persevered in doing good and remained conscious of God: 173 those who have been warned by other people, “Behold, a host has gathered against you; so beware of them!” – whereupon this only increased their faith, so that they answered, “God is enough for us; and how excellent a guardian is He!” 174 – and returned [from the battle] with God’s blessings and bounty, without having been touched by evil: for they had been striving after God’s goodly acceptance – and God is limitless in His great bounty. 175 It is but Satan who instils [into you] fear of his allies: so fear them not, but fear Me, if you are [truly] believers! 176 And be not grieved by those who vie with one another in denying the truth: verily, they can in no wise harm God. It is God’s will that they shall have no share in the [blessings of the] life to come; and tremendous suffering awaits them. 177 Verily, they who have bought a denial of the truth at the price of faith can in no wise harm God, whereas grievous suffering awaits them. 178 And they should not think – they who are bent on denying the truth – that Our giving them rein is good for them: We give them rein only to let them grow in sinfulness; and shameful suffering awaits them. 179 It is not God’s will [O you who deny the truth] to abandon the believers to your way of life: [and] to that end He will set apart the bad from the good. And it is not God’s will to give you insight into that which is beyond the reach of human perception: but [to that end] God elects whomsoever He wills from among His apostles. Believe, then, in God and His apostles; for if you believe and are conscious of Him, a magnificent requital awaits you. 180 AND THEY should not think – they who niggardly cling to all that God has granted them out of His bounty – that this is good for them: nay, it is bad for them. That to which they [so] niggardly cling will, on the Day of Resurrection, be hung about their necks: for unto God [alone] belongs the heritage of the heavens and of the earth; and God is aware of all that you do.

Quran Read-A-Long: The Cow 217-221 Speaks of Charity

A Sociological Phenomenon

The themes of verse 217 are ones that have continually risen throughout the Quran thus far, and I’m fairly confident they will continue to appear. Nevertheless, I can’t help but dwell on the idea here, as I have before, though I rarely say too much about it. It’s this constant talk of “they,” who are, unless I’m mistaken, the unbelievers – the deniers of Allah and his word. There’s so much warning about them, but the warning is one that goes beyond Islam.

As I see it, a religion’s text warning its readers to be chary of those who don’t believe in it would seem to be a common sociological phenomenon. “We believe in x, x being ultimate truth. Others don’t: they’re unbelievers. Moreover, they’re always going to try to get us not to believe what we believe.” What religion can’t claim this attitude? What’s particularly interesting to me, then, is that the Quran was not written long after the founding of Islam but was composed at the religion’s inception (though redacted later). That means that this fundamental understanding – a very human one, I might add – was likely based on experience with other religions (or simple logic). That’s not to question the status of the Quran as divine revelation, but only to note that this seems to me to be a particularly human understanding of the way people behave when they are challenged by others’ faith.

Drinkin’

Is line 219 the only place in the Quran that mentions gambling and wine or does it arise elsewhere? I ask because I know that alcohol is haram and I wonder if its status as such is based on a deduction from this verse or if it comes from another verse that states so more directly.

Charity

Verse 220 is a wonderful attitude towards orphans. Islam is nothing if not a religion that emphasizes the importance and value of charity. I think that is a marvelous value. To those who know many Muslims today, do you find that people really do give the most that they can or at least the prescribed amount? I consider Judaism and Christianity, which have the ideas of tzedaka and tithing/alms respectively, and think that in today’s day and age, though people certainly give, they don’t give all that they can. I imagine that it’s similar in Islam, as people are people and I would find it hard to imagine that everyone of a particular faith (at least a faith so large that it can’t be controlled directly within a single village or community) is out there giving all the charity they can. As long as there are rich and poor then this point seems self-evident enough.

However, it reminds us how important it is that the Quran (and other religions’ books) place such a serious emphasis on charity. Could we imagine how little might be given if people didn’t view charity as an injunction from God? Sure, contemporary human decency may persuade some people to do what they can, but history and life show us that people prefer to keep what they have than to give it away. I don’t mean to be a negative nancy about human nature; it is what it is and I think much of life is a challenge to rise above it so that we can all have a better life on this earth. For that reason, I’m grateful for many of the values taught by our religions.

Summary

What do you think about these verses? Can you tell us anything else about them?

Get a FREE Bonus Chapter from The Zen of South Park.

Read More Quran Read-A-Long.

The Cow 217-221

217. They ask you of war in the holy month. Tell them: “To fight in that month is a great sin. But a greater sin in the eyes of God is to hinder people from the way of God, and not to believe in Him, and to bar access to the Holy Mosque and turn people out of its precincts; and oppression is worse than killing. They will always seek war against you till they turn you away from your faith, if they can. But those of you who turn back on their faith and die disbelieving will have wasted their deeds in this world and the next. They are inmates of Hell, and shall there abide forever. 218. Surely those who believe, and those who leave their homes and fight in the way of God, may hope for His benevolence, for God is forgiving and kind. 219. They ask you of (intoxicants) wine and gambling. Tell them: “There is great enervation through profit in them from men; but their enervation is greater than benefit.” And they ask you what they should give. Tell them: “The utmost you can spare.” So does God reveal His signs: You may haply reflect 220. On this world and the next. And they ask you about the orphans. Tell them: “Improving their lot is much better; and if you take interest in their affairs, they are your brethren; and God is aware who are corrupt and who are honest; and if He had pleased He could surely have imposed on you hardship, for God is all-powerful and all-wise. 221. Do not marry idolatrous women unless they join the faith. A maid servant who is a believer is better than an idolatress even though you may like her. And do not marry your daughters to idolaters until they accept the faith. A servant who is a believer is better than an idolater even though you may like him. They invite you to Hell, but God calls you to Paradise and pardon by His grace. And He makes His signs manifest that men may haply take heed.