The opening few verses here seem to indicate that we’ve returned to a familiar subject – the Jews and Christians (and in some cases more specifically the Jews) – and though it feels somewhat repetitive to me at this point, I have to remember that we are in a surah called Al-‘Imran, which is the House of Imran. That is to say that we’re talking about Mary’s family (the mother of Jesus) and therefore logically Christianity. I wonder about the degree to which words against and about the Jews fit into a surah with this title, and would be appreciative if anyone could shed some light on the larger place and naming of this surah.
Verses 113-115 address the issue that I discussed with such joy so long ago: those early verses of The Cow that explain how others can go to heaven and be rewarded in the afterlife regardless of their religion so long as they believe in the right things. After all of the condemnatory remarks found in this surah, it’s very nice to be reminded that faith in God is faith in God.
I’m very glad that Asad had something to say about verse 118 and clarified that it is accepted – particularly due to the presence of a verse that permits friendship with non-Muslims (whew!) – to befriend non-Muslims, despite the way this verse makes it sound. Those unlike you is not meant to say non-Muslims but rather those who oppose Islam or act in ways that are so contrary to Islam that friendship is all but impossible. That I can understand.
That said, making an effort to understand those who are so different from us (this us being an any us rather than a Muslim us) can have wonderful results, allowing mutual understanding and living in a way that was not believed possible before when it was thought that two people’s existences were so diametrically opposed. Again, though, I can also understand the need for a cautionary verse like this and don’t necessarily think that in early 7th century Arabia forging friendships for the sake of mutual understanding with those who sought to destroy the umma would have been a particularly savvy idea.
What can you add to these verses to help us understand their meaning? Any thoughts about the surah in general?
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110. YOU ARE indeed the best community that has ever been brought forth for [the good of] mankind: you enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and you believe in God. Now if the followers of earlier revelation had attained to [this kind of] faith, it would have been for their own good; [but only few] among them are believers, while most of them are iniquitous: 111. [but] these can never inflict more than a passing hurt on you; and if they fight against you, they will turn their backs upon you [in flight], and will not be succoured. 112. Overshadowed by ignominy are they wherever they may be, save [when they bind themselves again] in a bond with God and a bond with men; for they have earned the burden of God’s condemnation, and are overshadowed by humiliation: all this [has befallen them] because they persisted in denying the truth of God’s messages and in slaying the prophets against all right: all this, because they rebelled [against God], and persisted in transgressing the bounds of what is right. 113. [But] they are not all alike: among the followers of earlier revelation there are upright people, who recite God’s messages throughout the night, and prostrate themselves [before Him]. 114. They believe in God and the Last Day, and enjoin the doing of what is right and forbid the doing of what is wrong, and vie with one another in doing good works: and these are among the righteous. 115. And whatever good they do, they shall never be denied the reward thereof: for, God has full knowledge of those who are conscious of Him. 116. [But,] behold, as for those who are bent on denying the truth – neither their worldly possessions nor their children will in the least avail them against God: and it is they who are destined for the fire, therein to abide. 117. The parable of what they spend on the life of this world is that of an icy wind which smites the tilth of people who have sinned against themselves, and destroys it: for, it is not God who does them wrong, but it is they who are wronging themselves. 118. O YOU who have attained to faith! Do not take for your bosom-friends people who are not of your kind. They spare no effort to corrupt you; they would love to see you in distress.** Vehement hatred has already come into the open from out of their mouths, but what their hearts conceal is yet worse. We have indeed made the signs [thereof] clear unto you, if you would but use your reason. 119. Lo! It is you who [are prepared to] love them, but they will not love you, although you believe in all of the revelation. And when they meet you, they assert, “We believe [as you believe]”; but when they find themselves alone, they gnaw their fingers in rage against you. Say: “Perish in your rage! Behold, God has full knowledge of what is in the hearts [of men]!” 120. If good fortune comes to you, it grieves them; and if evil befalls you, they rejoice in it. But if you are patient in adversity and conscious of God, their guile cannot harm you at all: for, verily, God encompasses [with His might] all that they do.